"The Myth, like the Dream, offers a Story Occurring in
space and time, a story which expresses, in symbolic language, religious and philosophical ideas, experiences of the
soul in which the real significance of the experience lies."
The Forgotten Language by
Erich Fromm, page 195
Many of the individual items mentioned in the play
Riders to the Sea seem to be symbolic.
We might look to the Latin for amplification
of the meaning of sticks and bundles found in the play.
This quote relates to a discussion of the meaning
of the word fascism:
"The word comes from the Latin word “Fasces,”
denoting a bundle of sticks tied together. The individual sticks represented citizens, and the bundle represented the
state. The message of this metaphor was that it was the bundle that was significant, not the individual sticks. If
it sounds un-American, it’s worth knowing that the Roman Fasces appear on the wall behind the Speaker’s podium
in the chamber of the US House of Representatives."
Sticks were used in a ceremonial way in Norse funerals
long ago. Their rhythmic beating might have produced a type of light hypnotic state.
"Hypnotic Strategies...The imagery approach
uses analogies, symbols, and metaphors to separate the subject from his external environment. This approach is effective for
use with those patients who resist the command approach...
The imagery approach is effective because it is difficult for a person to resist suggestions
he does not know he is consciously receiving, that is, when the suggestion is disguised in symbolism that only the subconscious
mind registers..." (Lung and Prowant, 91)
"The Power of Voice...The most important aspect of any hypnotic induction
is the voice of the hypnotist.
The human voice alone can produce a hypnotic state because the preverbal 'lower' brain
remains in awe of 'higher' brain's verbal ability." (Lung and Prowant, 91)
Mind Manipulation, Ancient and
Modern Ninja Techniques, Dr. Haha Lung and Christopher Prowant, Citadel Press, Kensington Publishing Corp., New York,
Following are some
quotes From Don Quixote that may have similar reference to symbols and language in the play Riders to The Sea.
Trees and Oak Trees in particular:
"They tell me there are big acorns in your village; send me a couple of dozen or so, and I shall value them...
La Mancha! And as for the acorns, senor, I'll send her ladyship a peck...I read how a duchess sends to beg for a couple of
dozen of acorns."
Rope around the neck in the guise of jewelry:
"It is all for thee, my child," said Teresa; "but
let me wear it round my neck for a few days; for verily it seems to make my heart glad."
"Teresa in reply bade them come with her
to her house and they would see the messenger, a most elegant youth, who had brought another present which was worth as much
more. The curate took the coral beads from her neck and examined them again."
A bundle with clothes to be unwrapped:
"You will be glad too," said the page, "when you see the bundle there is in this
portmanteau, for it is a suit of the finest cloth, that the governor only wore one day out hunting and now sends, all for
In the manner of Maurya in her trance state:
"God help us," said the curate, "we don't understand
you, Teresa, or know what you are talking about."
The Female Pope or Empress in the Tarot:
"See that rubbish, that garlic-stuffed fellow's daughter, how she goes stretched
at her ease in a coach as if she was a she-pope!' But let them tramp through the mud..."
In the manner of
the long rest of Samhain:
"When they say, 'Here,
here!' to thee with something good, swallow it.' Oh no! Go to sleep, and don't answer the strokes of good fortune and the
lucky chances that are knocking at the door of your house!"
In the manner of proverbs and symbolism:
"Hearing this, the curate said,
'I do believe that all this family of the Panzas are born with a sackful of proverbs in their insides, every one of them.'"
The Song of Roland was a poem of archetypes celebrating the
defeat of Charles the Great by a local hero whose name in English would be Roland.
This poem was an example of an early
type of French literature known as chansons de geste. The character types in these epic poems were stock characters.
days, news of battles was often put to rhyme and music to make it easier for the singers to remember the events in order. As
is the case of most ballads that survive for hundreds of years, the themes are archetypical. The names and events changed
a little, but the gist of the ballad contained the same archetypical themes and symbols that the populace inherently knew
What was The Song of Roland?
tre·pan 2 [trih-pan] Show IPA , noun, verb, tre·panned, tre·pan·ning. Archaic. noun 1. a person who ensnares or entraps others.
2. a stratagem; a trap.
Many of the same archetypical symbols in the play Riders
to The Sea and mythology related to the play, particularly in reference to Celtic and Norse mythology, are also found
in The Song of Roland. Here are a few examples:
mules then ordered Marsilie, / Gifts of a king..." (89) The white horse was a symbolic animal presented as a sacrifice.
"Give me therefore the wand, also the
glove ./ Answers the King: Old man of wisdom pruff; / By this white beard..." (248-249) The wand, as stick symbol, is now
associated with magicians. It was used in the ritual White Horse Ceremony and rebirthing of the king. The white beard of age
suggests a figure such as Merlin or Odin, both associated with magic.
"Answers the King: Be silent both on bench;
/ Your feet nor his..." (259-260) The feet are usually symbolic in every culture. They were found in superstition about the
wind blowing over the feet of a corpse in Celtic legend.
"There will I work a little trickery,"
(300) Odin is the most obvious symbol of trickery, but the archetype of the trickster or coyote is found in most cultures,
sometimes as a comic figure, but sometimes venerated because of its cunning. At other times the trickster is a villain.
"You must receive the holy Christian
faith." (431) A theme of opposites, Christianity versus the old Religion, where there is no choice but to become Christian.
The pagan says:
"You make me marvel sore / At Charlemagne, who is so old and hoar;" (537-538) The old man with a white beard symbolizes the
old ways as does Odin.
"My wonder yet is grand / At Charlemagne, who hoary is and blanched. / Two hundred years and more, I understand,
/ He has gone forth and conquered many a land," (550-553) These lines are not exact, but symbolic since he has not been
in battle for two hundred years. The implication is that the tradition is old.
"They followed him,
right to the sea they'll fare;" (685) In Riders
to The Sea, the last brother rides his horse down to the sea where the ferries are docking at the shore.
"Brake from the North tempest and storm in the
air; Then were they drowned, they will no more appear." (690) In Riders to The Sea, all of Maura's menfolk are drowned
in the sea.
"Charles sleeps on
nor wakens from his dream." (724) The dream is a device in literature that allows for the supernatural to intrude into the
real, providing an way for the spiritual or prophetic to enter into the story. In Riders to The Sea, Maurya
seems to be in a dream or hypnotic state as she discusses the dead. She also speaks of the long rest in the nights of Samhain,
a Celtic festival honoring the dead.
"Oger is here, of Denmark;"
answers Guenes," (749) The name is similar to the word ogre. The Danes may have been some of the ravaging
forces on the coast of Ireland that Maurya is remembering in Riders to The Sea. To their victims, the Vikings were
merciless monsters or ogres.
The Song of Roland Verses I - LXXXVII
Horses and Men in Rain by Carl Sandburg
Rope- symbolizes deliverance from bondage
Bone- symbol from the Exodus in Genesis